Grammar by CEFR Level

Below you will find suggested grammar topics for each level of the CEFR. This is not a definitive list, and many grammar points will overlap into different CEFR levels.


Verbs & tenses:
Present simple of ‘be’
There is/are
Present simple
Present continuous
Past simple of ‘be’
Past simple for regular verbs
Past simple for irregular verbs

Clauses & questions:
Questions – closed
Questions – open
Because clauses

Modal verbs:
Would like
Ability – can / can’t / could / couldn’t

Nonfinite verbs:
Like / hate / love + gerund

Subject & object pronouns
Demonstrative pronouns – this / that / these / those
Possessive case – ‘s
Irregular plural nouns
How much / many + noun

Demonstrative adjectives – this / that / these / those
Adjectives as complements of ‘be’
Adjectives before nouns
Possessive adjectives

Adverbs of time & indefinite frequency
Adverbs of frequency
Adverbs of degree – very / really / too

Other parts of speech:
Parts of speech
Coordinating conjunctions
Indefinite article – a / an
Definite article – the
Prepositions of time
Prepositions of place


Verbs & tenses:
Past continuous
Future – will vs going to
Future – present tenses for the future
Present perfect
Stative verbs

Clauses & questions:
Conditionals – zero
Conditionals – 1st
Adverb clauses of time – when / while
Questions – subject

Modal verbs:
Ability – be able to
Advice – should
Possibility – might / may / could
Obligation & prohibition – must / have to / don’t have to
Requests – can / could / will / would
Imagined situations – would
Permission – can / can’t
Suggestion – could / let’s / shall
General truths & facts

Nonfinite verbs:
Want / need + to-infinitive

Countable & uncountable nouns
Someone / anyone / no one / everyone
Something / anything / nothing / everything

Adjective order
Comparatives & superlatives
Comparatives for equality
Expressing similarity – same / like / alike
Irregular adjectives

Adverb placement
Adverbs of degree & intensity
Adverbs of manner
Comparative adverbs

Other parts of speech:
No article
Some / any / none / every / all


Verbs & tenses:
Subject-verb agreement
Past habits
Used to / be used to / get used to
Present perfect continuous
Past perfect
Past perfect continuous
Passive voice – simple tenses
Phrasal verbs

Clauses & questions:
Relative clauses
Adverb clauses of time
Adverb clauses of reason / purpose / contrast
Conditionals – 2nd
Conditionals – 3rd
Reported speech – say & tell
Noun clauses – ‘that’ vs ‘WH’ clauses
Questions – tag
Questions – indirect / embedded

Modal verbs:
Permission & requests – might / may
Possibility & deduction (in the present)
Suggestion expressions

Nonfinite verbs:
Gerunds & infinitives as subjects
Gerunds & infinitives as objects
Gerunds & infinitives as objects (different meanings)
Gerunds & infinitives for purpose

Reflexive & reciprocal pronouns

Adjectives ending in ‘-ing’ and ‘-ed’

Conjunctive adverbs
Adverbs of time for perfect tenses

Other parts of speech:
Dependent prepositions


Verbs & tenses:
Future time expressions with ‘be’
Future in the past
Future continuous
Future perfect
Future perfect continuous
Passive voice – other tenses & modals
Passive voice – gerunds & infinitives
Causative verbs
Verbs of the senses

Clauses & questions:
Relative clauses & questions – preposition placement
Relative clauses with whose
Relative clauses with relative adverbs
Relative clauses as sentence modifiers
Relative clauses – reduced
Conditionals – ‘if’ alternatives
Conditionals – ‘would’ alternatives
Conditionals – mixed
Participle clauses
Reported speech – questions / requests / commands
Questions – past for politeness
Questions – negative (including uncontracted)

Modal verbs:
Certainty expressions
Obligation expressions
Possibility & deduction (in the past)
Regret & unreality
Ideal situations
Expectations – should / might / may + be + continuous

Nonfinite verbs:
To-infinitives as adverbs & adjectives

Other parts of speech:
Emphasis – do / did


Verbs & tenses:
Subjunctive mood
Imperative – 3rd person (let) / don’t you / pointing

Clauses & questions:
Cleft sentences
Conditionals – imperatives
Conditionals – reduced & inverted
Inversion – structure
Inversion – negative adverbials
Inversion – restrictive adverbials
Relative clauses – some of which / many of which
Adverb clauses for focus – whatever / wherever / however
Nonfinite clauses (advanced)
Passive voice clauses for sentence focus
Wide range of reporting verbs – academic use
Emphasis expressions
Fronting for emphasis

Modal verbs:
Expressions to give opinions
Criticism & disapproval

Comparatives & superlatives with intensifiers
Superlatives with postmodifiers
Compound adjectives
Adjectives after nouns

Adverbs with prepositional phrases
Extreme adverbs to modify non-gradable adjectives

Other parts of speech:
Conjunctions – and yet / in that / either…or / neither…nor
Discourse markers
Ellipsis & substitution 

The lists above are based partly on my own experience, and partly on other resources including the English Grammar Profile, which is based on extensive research using the Cambridge Learner Corpus and is part of the English Profile programme, which aims to provide evidence about language use that helps to produce better language teaching materials. See for more information.